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A chest X-ray is a picture of the chest that shows your heart, lungs, airway, blood vessels, and lymph nodes. A chest X-ray also shows the bones of.
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For the method of imaging, see Radiography. For imaging in a medical context, see Radiology. For other meanings, see X- ray (disambiguation). X- radiation (composed of X- rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X- rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.
X- ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X- radiation is referred to with terms meaning R. The term X- ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself. Since the wavelengths of hard X- rays are similar to the size of atoms they are also useful for determining crystal structures by X- ray crystallography. By contrast, soft X- rays are easily absorbed in air; the attenuation length of 6.
V (~2 nm) X- rays in water is less than 1 micrometer. One common practice is to distinguish between the two types of radiation based on their source: X- rays are emitted by electrons, while gamma rays are emitted by the atomic nucleus. One common alternative is to distinguish X- and gamma radiation on the basis of wavelength (or, equivalently, frequency or photon energy), with radiation shorter than some arbitrary wavelength, such as 1. Thus, gamma- rays generated for medical and industrial uses, for example radiotherapy, in the ranges of 6. This makes it a type of ionizing radiation, and therefore harmful to living tissue. A very high radiation dose over a short period of time causes radiation sickness, while lower doses can give an increased risk of radiation- induced cancer.
In medical imaging this increased cancer risk is generally greatly outweighed by the benefits of the examination. The ionizing capability of X- rays can be utilized in cancer treatment to kill malignantcells using radiation therapy. It is also used for material characterization using X- ray spectroscopy.
X- rays in water showing the oxygen absorption edge at 5. V, the energy. The attenuation length is about four orders of magnitude longer for hard X- rays (right half) compared to soft X- rays (left half).
Hard X- rays can traverse relatively thick objects without being much absorbed or scattered. For this reason, X- rays are widely used to image the inside of visually opaque objects. The most often seen applications are in medical radiography and airport security scanners, but similar techniques are also important in industry (e.
The penetration depth varies with several orders of magnitude over the X- ray spectrum. This allows the photon energy to be adjusted for the application so as to give sufficient transmission through the object and at the same time good contrast in the image.
X- rays have much shorter wavelength than visible light, which makes it possible to probe structures much smaller than what can be seen using a normal microscope. Descargar Drivers 802.11G Wireless Lan Pci Card. This can be used in X- ray microscopy to acquire high resolution images, but also in X- ray crystallography to determine the positions of atoms in crystals.
Interaction with matter. The strength of these interactions depends on the energy of the X- rays and the elemental composition of the material, but not much on chemical properties, since the X- ray photon energy is much higher than chemical binding energies. Photoabsorption or photoelectric absorption is the dominant interaction mechanism in the soft X- ray regime and for the lower hard X- ray energies. At higher energies, Compton scattering dominates. Photoelectric absorption. However, the general trend of high absorption coefficients and thus short penetration depths for low photon energies and high atomic numbers is very strong.
For soft tissue photoabsorption dominates up to about 2. V photon energy where Compton scattering takes over. For higher atomic number substances this limit is higher.
The high amount of calcium (Z=2. A photoabsorbed photon transfers all its energy to the electron with which it interacts, thus ionizing the atom to which the electron was bound and producing a photoelectron that is likely to ionize more atoms in its path. An outer electron will fill the vacant electron position and produce either a characteristic photon. These effects can be used for elemental detection through X- ray spectroscopy or Auger electron spectroscopy. Compton scattering. Part of the energy of the photon is transferred to the scattering electron, thereby ionizing the atom and increasing the wavelength of the X- ray.