The name Golden Horde is said to have been inspired by the golden color of the tents the Mongols lived in during wartime, or an actual golden tent used by Batu Khan. Etymologically, the word 'orda' comes from the Mongolic 'ordu' which could mean camp, palace, tent, 'seat of power' or 'royal court'. Within the Liao Empire of the. You've toppled the undead armies of the Lich King and brought Arthas to his knees. Scansoft Pdf Professional Free Download. Now the breaker of worlds, Deathwing, has burst forth from the heart of the.
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Golden Horde - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Golden Horde. Ulus of Jochi. Shift from Mongol to Turkic occurred in the 1. Religion. Tengrism. Shamanism. Christianity. Tibetan Buddhism(1.
It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi. The Horde's military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg (1. The territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Ilkhanate. However, soon after the 1. Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, the Golden Horde broke into smaller Tatar khanates which declined steadily in power. At the start of the 1.
Horde began to fall apart. By 1. 46. 6 it was being referred to simply as the .
Within its territories there emerged numerous predominantly Turkic- speaking khanates. These internal struggles allowed the northern vassal state of Muscovy to rid itself of the .
The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, survived until 1. Name. The name Golden Horde is said to have been inspired by the golden color of the tents the Mongols lived in during wartime, or an actual golden tent used by Batu Khan or by Uzbek Khan, or to have been bestowed by the Slavic tributaries to describe the great wealth of the khan. But the Mongolic word for the color yellow (Sar. The first known use of the term, in 1. Russian chronicle History of Kazan, applied it to the Ulus of Batu (Russian: . Western scholars have tended to follow the Timurid sources' nomenclature and call the left wing the White Horde.
The khanate apparently used the term White Horde to refer to its right wing, which was situated in Batu's home base in Sarai and controlled the ulus. However, the designations Golden Horde, Blue Horde, and White Horde have not been encountered in the sources of the Mongol period. Mongol origins (1. Jochi was the eldest, but he died six months before Genghis.
The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu, who eventually became the ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda, who became the leader of the White Horde. From there he conquered some of the southern steppes of present- day Ukraine in 1. Cumans to retreat westward. The military campaign against the Kypchaks and Cumans had started under Jochi and Subedei in 1.
By 1. 23. 9 a large portion of Cumans were driven out of the Crimea peninsula, and it became one of the appanages of the Mongol Empire. Moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rus' and for three years subjugated the principalities of former Kievan Rus', whilst his cousins M. Batu turned back from his siege of Vienna to take part in disputing the succession. The Mongol armies would never again travel so far west. In 1. 24. 2, after retreating through Hungary, destroying Pest in the process, and subjugating Bulgaria. Shortly before that, the younger brother of Batu and Orda, Shiban, was given his own enormous ulus east of the Ural Mountains along the Ob and Irtysh Rivers.
While the Mongolian language was undoubtedly in general use at the court of Batu, few Mongol texts written in the territory of the Golden Horde have survived, perhaps because of the prevalent general illiteracy. According to Grigor'ev, yarliq, or decrees of the Khans, were written in Mongol, then translated into the Cuman language. The existence of Arabic- Mongol and Persian- Mongol dictionaries dating from the middle of the 1. Mamluks in Egypt suggests that there was a practical need for such works in the chancelleries handling correspondence with the Golden Horde. It is thus reasonable to conclude that letters received by the Mamluks . Although Batu stated he was suffering from old age and illness and politely refused the invitation, it seems that he did not support the election of G.
Finally, he sent his brothers to the kurultai, and the new Emperor of the Mongols was elected in 1. All the senior Rus' princes, including Yaroslav II of Vladimir, Danylo of Halych, and Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich of Vladimir, acknowledged Batu's supremacy. However, the Mongol court exterminated some anti- Mongol princes, such as Michael of Chernigov, who had killed a Mongol envoy in 1. After a short time, G. Batu sent Andrey and Alexander Nevsky to Karakorum in Mongolia in 1.
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