Urdu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Urdu (; Urdu: . It is also one of the 2. Constitution of India.
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Urdu is historically associated with the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Apart from specialized vocabulary, Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, which is associated or misassociated with the Hindu community.
The Urdu language received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the Persian and local official languages with the Urdu and English languages in the North Indian regions of Jammu and Kashmir in 1. Punjab in 1. 84. 9. Urdu developed under the influence of the Persian and Arabic languages, both of which have contributed a significant amount of vocabulary to formal speech. For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta ( . The Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. Urdu was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian. Thus a new literary register, called .
At independence, Pakistan established a highly Persianized literary form of Urdu as its national language. English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co- official language.
Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has lately incorporated and borrowed many words from regional languages like Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi and Balti, thus allowing speakers of the language in Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily and giving the language a decidedly Pakistani flavour. Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni (Deccan) of South India, and Khariboli of the Punjab region since recent times. Because of Urdu's similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can easily understand one another if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary.
The syntax (grammar), morphology, and the core vocabulary are essentially identical. Thus linguists usually count them as one single language and contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio- political reasons. Despite this, Urdu was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other. Urdu is therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Sialkot, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Jhang, Sargodha and Skardu. It is written, spoken and used in all provinces/territories of Pakistan despite the fact that the people from differing provinces may have different indigenous languages, as from the fact that it is the . For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu speakers from people whose native language is one of the State languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Potwari, Hindko, Pahari, Saraiki, Balti, and Brahui who can read and write only Urdu.
It is absorbing many words from the regional languages of Pakistan. This variation of Urdu is sometimes referred to as Pakistani Urdu. So although most of the population is conversant in Urdu, it is the first language of only an estimated 7% of the population who are mainly Muslim immigrants (known as Muhajir in Pakistan) from different parts of South Asia. The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary. There are millions of Pakistanis whose native language is not Urdu, but because they have studied in Urdu medium schools, they can read and write Urdu along with their native language.
Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins (such as Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty- five years have also become fluent in Urdu. With such a large number of people(s) speaking Urdu, the language has in recent years acquired a peculiar Pakistani flavour further distinguishing it from the Urdu spoken by native speakers and diversifying the language even further. A great number of newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa- i- Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan#Urdu language Newspapers).
Urdu literature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Urdu literature (Urdu: . While it tends to be dominated by poetry, especially the verse forms of the ghazal and nazm, it has expanded into other styles of writing, including that of the short story, or afsana. Urdu literature is mostly popular in Pakistan, where Urdu is the National language, as well as in India. It is also widely understood in Afghanistan. Urdu literature originated some time around the 1.
North India among the sophisticated gentry of the courts. The continuing traditions of Islam and patronisations of foreign culture centuries earlier by Muslim rulers, usually of Turkic or Afghan descent, marked their influence on the Urdu language given that both cultural heritages were strongly present throughout Urdu territory. The Urdu language, with a vocabulary almost evenly split between Sanskrit- derived Prakrit and Arabo- Persian words, was a reflection of this cultural amalgamation. Special contributors. He is credited with the systematization of northern Indian classical music, known as Hindustani, and he wrote works both in Persian and Hindavi. While the couplets that come down from him are representative of a latter- Prakrit Hindi bereft of Arabo- Persian vocabulary, his influence on court viziers and writers must have been transcendental, for a century after his death Quli Qutub Shah was speaking a language that might be considered to be Urdu. Sultan Muhammed Quli Qutb Shah was a scholar in Persian and Arabic.
He also wrote poetry in Telugu language, Persian language and Urdu language. His poetry has been compiled into Dewan or volume entitled . It is said that the Urdu language acquired the status of a literary language due to his contributions. Android Games Free Download For Android Phone on this page.
He died in the year 1. The prose component of Urdu literature was mainly restricted to the ancient form of epic stories called Dastan (. These long stories have complicated plots that deal with magical and otherwise fantastic creatures and events. The genre originated in the Middle East and was disseminated by folk storytellers.
It was assimilated by individual authors. Dastan's plots are based both on folklore and classical literary subjects. Dastan was particularly popular in Urdu literature, typologically close to other narrative genres in Eastern literatures, such as Persian masnawi, Punjabi qissa, Sindhi waqayati bait, etc., and also reminiscent of the European novel. The oldest known Urdu dastans are Dastan- i- Amir Hamza, recorded in the early seventeenth century, and the on longer extant.
Bustan- i. Khayal (The Garden of Imagination or The Garden of Khayal) by Mir Taqi Khayal (d. Most of the narrative dastans were recorded in the early nineteenth century, representing the inclusion of 'wandering' motifs borrowed from the folklore of the Middle East, central Asia and northern India. These include Bagh- o. Bahar (The Garden and Spring) by Mir Amman, Mazhab- i- Ishq (The Religion of Love) by Nihalchand Lahori, Araish- i- Mahfil (The Adornment of the Assembly) by Hyderbakhsh Hyderi, and Gulzar- i- Chin (The Flower Bed of Chin) by Khalil Ali Khan Ashq. They are often a collection of names with a line or two of information about each poet, followed by specifics about his composition.
Some of this Tazkiras give biographical details, and a little idea of the style or poetical power is transmitted. Even the large anthologies do not systematically review an author's work.
Most of them have the names in alphabetical order, but one or two are ordered by historical chronology. The majority quote only lyrics, and the quotations are usually chosen randomly. Urdu poetry reached its peak in the 1.
The most well- developed form of poetry is the ghazal, known for its quality and quantity within the Urdu tradition. Sonnets. They also covered the changing times under the progressive writing movement inspired by Sajjad Zaheer. However, the independence of Pakistan in 1. Abdullah Hussain and Quratulain Haider. Towards the end of the last century the novel took a serious turn towards the contemporary life and realities of the young generations of India. The most significant novels of the current generation of Indian novelists in Urdu, which demonstrate a new confidence in contemporary life, are Makaan by Paigham Afaqui, Do Gaz Zameen by Abdus Samad, and Pani by Ghazanfer. These works, especially Makaan, brought the Urdu novel out of the prevailing themes of the independence of Pakistan in 1.